Thursday, June 30, 2016

Is Palitha Thewarapperuma Crazy?

As we all know Parliamentarian Palitha Thewarapperuma is a hyper-active politician. Popular media used to report his 'activities' on weekly basis. That means every week he creates 'something' that catches media attention. I think many people believe that Mr. Thewarapperuma is a crazy politician or a pervert personality who provides 'enjoyment' for others (and some compare him with Mervin de Silva). It is true that from parliament to the village politics he did not distinguish any difference in what he did. He fully engaged his body in what he believed in (whereas others keep a 'sane distance' with what they believe in).  Finally, when he launched a fasting to death campaign on behalf of some school children who could not enter Meegahakiula Primary School, he became seriously ill. Now he is under treatment in the intensive care at Nawaloka. The extreme result of his 'body politics' went to the level of committing suicide (end of his body); an act of self-annihilation. It seems that your bodily existence becomes meaningless when the ideals you live for are gone. This will be most simplistic way to understand Palitha's intervention in proletariat politics in the guise of bourgeois outlook. For instance, he recently came to Sabaragamuwa University for an opening but the students did not allow him to enter. Amazingly, my friends in Sabaragamuwa University say that his did handle the student unrest (when he came for an opening few weeks back) very successfully and even the academics had lot to learn from this so called 'emotional' politician. They say many politicians don't have the skill to manage a situation like that. Though students did not allow him to inaugural open the Cultural Center, they did not negatively react to him as they did to SB or Basil during the Rajapaksa regime. He got that tensed political situation totally under control for nearly three hours. He did not run away from that situation nor asked for any assistance from police or other government agencies. He promised the students that he will help them to sort out their issues. 'He was a brave politician with good management skills', some senior academic said. The so called radical students didn't allow this beautiful man to enter the university even to drink a cup of tea. But he was successful where others totally failed. 

By looking at his 'surplus activism' it is easy to brand him as a pervert politician. So, Akila Viraaj can bravely say that Palith needs psychiatric treatment. But within his hyper-activity and tensed intervention to particulars, what bitter political lessons does he teach us? He is simply crazy or we have made such an inhuman 'system' that drives a sensitive man like Palitha crazy? When politicians like Ranil, Maithripala, Ravi or Akila don't go mad since they keep a cynical distance with the crazy system, Palith become over-close (too close) to the system that relentlessly drives such close observer crazy! Those who maintain that distance become sane people (Sane Society) and rule the country! Thewarapperuma was 'crazy enough' to look at the system that closely. Is he crazy or are we?

He intervened into some of most crucial areas of our daily life; school entrance, food quality in lower class hotels, sanitary issues, state bureaucracy, road constructions or bribery. These are the aspects that both the bourgeois politicians and so called Marxists simply ignore. By materially encountering those realities Mr. Thewarapperuma shows the enigmatic bourgeois politics that such issues are the most important elements that need immediate attention for the sake of poor people in the country. These people don't know much about the common slogans such as 'good-governance' or private universities and the like. Thewarapperuma's fatal efforts once more prove how difficult it can be to bring in real change to the frozen and corrupt Third World Reality.

For his enigmatic bodily representation in proletariat politics, I love this guy and wish him quick recovery...(This is a very subjective statement). 

Update: (2016. 05. 07.) Now Palitha Thewarapperuma is under police custody. When he moved from hospital and was trying to release those mothers who participated in the fasting to death campaign with him and are now under police custody, Palitha has also been arrested in accusation of illegal public gathering and threatening a government officer. Is this similar to what Mervin did to that government officer during Rajapasksa regime? Like Akila this guy can also enjoy the privileges he has without being 'crazily' worried about children and all.  It is also true that Sri Lankan education is going nowhere whether it is primary, secondary or tertiary. But we have to struggle to change that reality as well. Things cannot go on the same way as they are. Now from police he will be asked to go to an asylum where he will be treated for his 'sickness'! of being too close to the reality that we all live in. It is those 'failed students' (whom Palith represents) who need more attention than those who got through the exam and are in the safe side. 

Sunday, April 17, 2016

Will Kate and William enter the mysterious melancholia of the Asiatic soul?

The popular media in UK ask why Kate and William follow the footsteps of Diana in revoking or retracing the traumatic memories of her bitter marriage.  I think Kate and William do not follow Diana's footsteps but by sitting in the same Diana bench in the front of Taj Mahal, a universal symbol of love, but they 'decorate' or 'celebrate' over the bitter memories of the past to truly forget her. As Zizek quotes, 'if you want to kill a person bury him, and if you want to forget that grow flowers over the tomb'.

I think Taj Mahal also resembles some mysterious Oriental love of a Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan; a monument of celebration to get rid of past memories. What I fear is (against Jan Moir of Daily Mirror) whether they will fall prey to the melancholic mystery and abyss of the  depressing Asian soul....

Pre-philosophical Asian universe can generate-
a. a fantasy that creates the object of desire (mysterious unknown phantasmic kernel) for the Western soul.

b.  an 'economy of enjoyment' (that is why Yannis Varufakis says "others do not America but America needs others") that sustains the Western Enlightenment inheritance or the European Reality by excluding the mythical despotic content that can 'return' like a ghost to the Post-Enlightened world.

Click the hyperlink for the Daily Mail article

Saturday, March 19, 2016

Donald Trump: It's not how great America is but how small its soul has been!

Fake front page by The Boston Globe)
                             'Education is the art of making man ethical' (Hegel)
As expected, America’s obscene underside is finally about to tap the front door of the White House. Donald Trump’s ascend to American politics, whether or not he is elected to be the President of the United States, is by no means a strange political phenomenon. Those who now see the demonic danger in his approach to American politics seem to have forgotten who actually ‘made’ him during the last ten years or so for what he is now. The very entertainment economy and negligent media did a 'tremendous job' to ‘elevate’ Donald Trump from a business tycoon to a popular politician through a very generous image-building process for what he so audaciously appears today (Read the article 'Donald Trump is American Journalism's Great Failure'). Within the current postmodern economy, enormous profits of his entertainment businesses kept increasing and, understandably, the electronic media fell before his feet though some of the mainstream channels despised him. As recent Panama Papers exemplified, nothing depends on so called mainstream media today. They all are busy with their demand-supply curves and do not care for the 'truth' anymore until truth enters in from the back door like a ghost. The 'expert' critics could properly estimate the risk that Trump's ‘cheap popular image’ could finally have a devastating effect on America’s elitism and its fluent Lincolnian rhetoric. Now that they realized Trump effectively uses, in his public addresses, some kind of grammar 'typical of children aged 11 and under' (read The Independent for the full story), he has come to the very threshold of world’s most powerful position. Within the context of 'age 11 grammar', now he uses the dark ethno-political metalanguage strategies adapted by German nationalism in the mid twentieth century.  What Trump injects to the American soul is the 'guilt' of the surplus enjoyment of consumerism that makes its subjects forget the Discourse of Universality. Within the ease of consumerism, Trump replaces the paternal superego with 'maternal short-circuit to enjoy' by externalizing the depressive and anxious enemy to a far away Islamic-Asian-Chinese-Latin American land. It is also a sort of resuscitation of the Enlightenment myth of some Oriental fantasy that lives in a maximum of distance to the European reality, which can at the same time be close if no 'protective measures' are taken.

This means that Trump's arrival is made of a deep psychoanalytical structure that runs at the very heart of the American unconscious. He screens the background for their exotic fantasy that haunts as a phantasmic 'specter'. A specter, as you know, can very easily cross the inside/outside, alien/familiar or away/close boundaries. By provoking American nationalism Trump easily gains daily popularity and media attention, while making the affairs for the opposition political movement extremely difficult, 'unpredictable' and 'unforeseeable' (for example, Bernie Sander's universality rhetoric did not gain momentum until recently). Symptomatically, Trump displays the unpredictability of a hysteric who obstinately demands acceptance from the bourgeois hierarchy and his weapons are nationalism and exclusion. The pages of modern history prove that confronting nationalism is perhaps the hardest ideological battle that universalism ever comes across. It is through Trump's body that the battered American soul responds to the ever-rising fundamentalism as a political reaction. He has borrowed the language of nationalism to combat those who fight against the American empire from the periphery. As Zizek points out, ‘suicide bombs and terrorist attacks are ‘momentary tastes’ imported for the rich nations from the Third World which experiences such catastrophes every minute of their daily existence. It is true that such reactions can traumatize American existence and threaten their enjoyment but it also creates the play-ground for postmodern politicians  such as Donald Trump. It's no astonishment that Trump unconditionally represents that entertainment oriented obscene underside of American decadence which essentially demands an enemy. Not that Trump is simply politically ‘illiterate’ but 'over-literate' in successfully generating a discourse of fear (Sri Lankan example would be Wimal Weerawansa). Americans will take another thirty years or more to understand how politically ‘illiterate’ their society had been to give the rise to the 'return of the repressed' in the name of Donald Trump (as Obama claims many politicians now use the language of hatred and exclusion but only Trump gets highlighted. In that sense, this trend represents generalized perversion) . 

At least some ten years ago Jurgen Habermas saw that, from within the American society, fundamentalism radically surfaces as a self-defense against the uncertainty and cultural upheaval triggered by capitalist modernization. He says, ‘what is more surprising is the political revitalization of religion at the heart of the United States, where dynamism of modernization unfolds most successfully’.  Modern secular tendencies have finally erupted into its opposite, the radicalized postmodern religion at both ends of the world.  Subsequently, the rational inheritance of the modern European civilization is challenged by irrational violence and Mr. Trump cunningly represents the irrational totalitarian potential that emerges within the liberal framework of modern American society.  The real patriarchal question is whether the liberal democracy can prevent him becoming the President of United State of America?  To quote Habermas, ‘religious tradition appear to continue with undiminished strength, washing away or at least leveling the thresholds hitherto assumed to pertain between ‘tradition and ‘modern’ societies’. Within his modern secular outfit, Mr. Trump places himself between above division, seeking the shelter in pre-modern values such as ‘religion exclusion’ and ‘Wall Theory’ to protect the so called modern life-world spoiled by consumerist fetishism. What Trump displays through his image is the very fetishist commoditization that all the Americans dream of. Now they have an exemplary figure who succeeded in materializing the very American Dream! They should not worry about the fact that their billion-dollar baby model is  not only politically 'illiterate' (cunningly 'hyper-literate' as Baudrillard says) but a specter that emerged from within their unconscious underside.

Trump provides the ‘surplus-enjoyment’ that Americans unconsciously need at this postmodern hour. It is the 'illusion' of an enemy that is structurally necessary for the truth to arise (Gabriel and Zizek 2009); the truth is the failure of capitalism. For this illusion to be real, now Trump has found out just not one enemy but multiple of them such as Islamic fundamentalism, Mexican drug dealers, Middle Eastern migrants, Chinese entrepreneurs and Asian labor force etc. (those who are ‘not’ Americans).  The ideology of ‘externalization of enemy’ has qualified him to be the 'first totalitarian leader' in modern America.  His master discourse is successfully resuscitating a false enemy for the American to believe in and combining both the ‘exterior’ and ‘interior’ of the dialectic which can sustain its temporal harmony, for instance, to protect ‘us’ (our economy and society) from ‘them’ (Muslims, Chinese and Mexicans). Can Trump be intelligent enough to see that he has forgotten the borderline concept that creates the spatiality between the above two?  The world is divided into two stable oppositions (light and darkness) and the existential recognition of the enemy is defined against ourselves. The Hegelian dialectic of inter-subjectivity always claims that inner harmony is achieved through a paradoxical (re)position of both inside and outside within the same horizon. The moment that you lose the 'other' is the moment that you lose yourself. America has always been America because of its melting pot that welcomes the Other. Trump is truly against its authentic upbringing of melting down differences and sheltering everyone under the master signifier called American Dream or American Values or way-of-life. What Trump propagates is anti-Americanism at its very best. The true enemy of America has emerged not from China, Latin America or Middle East but from within its damaged liberal capitalist soul itself. When commodity fetishism becomes the material existence, nationalism becomes the spiritual aspect that gives life to capitalism.

There is always an ‘extimacy’ between two competing opposites, for examples, Chinese businessmen and American entrepreneurs. One end depends on the other and both opposites need the recognition of the other. According to Schmitt, ‘The political enemy need not be morally evil or aesthetically ugly; he need not appear as an economic competitor, and it may even be advantageous to engage with him in business transactions. But he is, nevertheless, the other, the stranger; and it is sufficient for his nature that he is, in a specifically intense way, existentially something different and alien, so that in the extreme case conflicts with him are possible. . . . Only the actual participants can correctly recognize, understand, and judge the concrete situation and settle the extreme case of conflict. Each participant is in a position to judge whether the adversary intends to negate his opponent’s way of life and therefore must be repulsed or foughtin order to preserve one’s own form of existence’ (Schmitt: 1996: The Concept of the Political).  We always maintain an externalized intimate-ness with what is excluded from our existence. At the same time, whatever is excluded (Jews, Tamils, Muslims or Chinese businessmen) from the present moment always 'returns' in a spectral presence in future.  Hence, the enemy is not always evil but an 'ex-timated' instrument that sustains a necessary form of dialectic existence (Jaws by Steven Spielberg). Though Trump may not hear anything rational during his race towards American neo-totalitarianism, let's hope he and the corrupted American souls that follow his command ('enjoyment of the Leader') may understand this basic Hegelian truth before his Presidency and before making America great again!  

Though The Boston Globe was radical enough to publish a mocking front page on the demonic rise of Donald Trump, it is really enough to stop him coming in and snatching the world's most powerful position? So far Donald Trump the tycoon have been able to be influential in almost all the media outlets in America and even those who still believe in universal values find it difficult to avoid him. His campaign mainly targets the anger, rage, racial politics and disappointment of working class people based on also how the system does not address the true needs of the public (read The Guardian report). Doesn't this 'Habermasian moment' represent the failure of the very bourgeois political project itself? Doesn't he paradoxically offer the very Zizekian 'enjoyment' that all the Americans were waiting for? In that context, this symptom surely evidences that his project (as his slogan claims) is not 'to make American great again' but to unearth how miniature its soul has been during these postmodern times...As far as the Americans are concerned that 'revelation' can also be 'a true political act' resulted from Donald Trump contingency.

Before concluding this essay, let's listen to what a Mexican-American 'enemy' had to say some 40 years ago.
                   'Let the children have their way
                    Let the children play...
                    Let the children play' (Carlos Santana)

                                                                                                                                                               Cartoon from New York Times                                                                                                                                                                  

Butler, R. (2005) Slavoj Zizek: Live Theory. London & New York. Continuum.

Gabriel, M., Zizek, S. (2009). Mythology, Madness and Laughter: Subectivity in German Idealism. London & New York. Continuum.

Frank, T. (2016). Millions of Ordinary Americans Support Donald Trump. Here's Why. in The Guardian.

Habermas, J. (2000). Religion in the Public Sphere. in European Journal of Philosophy. London. Polity.

Schmitt, C. (1996). The Concept of the Political. London. Routledge.

                                                                                                                                     Mahesh Hapugoda

Sunday, December 27, 2015

Enrique Iglesias, Cultural Totem and Before the Beginning

 It seems that the totemic sacredness of the Sri Lankan culture has been violated by Enrique’s ‘Sex and Love’ concert in Sri Lanka. Totem is a symbol that serves as an emblem that characterizes or/and represent the spiritual as well as the mythical content that is collectively shared by a particular community, clan or group of people. Behind the recent controversy in which even President of Sri Lanka made a statement to ‘ban’ such concerts in future which may pollute the ‘essence’ of Sri Lankaness, lot of criticism are based not on the nature of such concert but one female fan throwing her bra at Enrique. According to the Sathhanda Sinhala newspaper, these kinds of events are often ‘staged occurrences’ where the event organizers in advance organize such show- bits as part of the flow of the whole event. In that case the ‘staged authenticity’ (I borrow this term from American sociologist Dean MacCannell 1975) has transformed into a more real event than reality. The reality could have been that this particular fan throws her brazier (or any other undergarments) at Enrique out of her own authentic feeling of ecstasy or may be thrilled by his attractive figure and passionate stage personality which transcends freedom of sexuality and so on. The final discourse of this whole event is 'reduced' to a threatening enemy, a female fan who 'conspired' to  steal the harmonious integrity of our society. The Sinhala-Buddhist spiritual essence (the dead primordial father figure is spectrally rejuvenated and reincarnated  through tattoos such as  Sinhale ) that remained unpolluted for centuries even before powerful Indian and European invaders! has apparently been thundered by a female figure who was absolutely 'unknown' before this event.      

I think if the event is a 'staged' phenomenon, this political outcome is far more dangerous than it occurred spontaneously. In a spontaneous movement, a hysterically excited fan may do so out of overwhelming emotions towards the artist. But since this is deliberately ‘staged’ for public display, it is an organized and pre-planned violation of a fundamental taboo of a society.  In this case, ‘they knew what they were doing’ by using a female figure against her own culture (she, as a trans-national fan of Iglesias, may probably not stick to the existing Sri Lankan cultural values).  The spiritual logic of late-capitalism is to overcome the old-fashioned binaries of modernity (Zizek 2011); man/woman; high/low culture; loyalty/betrayal; good/bad; truth/false;  spirituality and materialism etc. and lead the postmodern subject towards a hyper-trophy situation. The tantra of late-capitalism is to perform transgressive outburst of enjoyment for the gaze of the Other (2011: 8).  The offender here is a woman who is held accountable and is to be crucified in compensation for her violation of the taboo.  In this new late-capitalist framework, woman who embodies the ‘inherent primordial loss’ generally breaks away (or forced to, by the market forces) from the basic social bond and stages traumatic events for people to enjoy. She presents the social truth by trying to appropriate the ‘loss’; the Symbolic Order -  or, in other words, lack of common social link between the members of a social group that creates object-love where there is universal identification. What is simply meant by this is that there is no ‘ontic-domain’ (to identify universal comradeship) beyond identiarians such as race, culture, gender etc. to represent authority.  In this context, the hysterized mob identifies with Enrique’s fragile sexual image (behind Enrique’s active sexy performance, he has a passive sexual orientation) where there is no heroic image of universal emancipation for them to look for.   

The totemic element in almost any society involves matriarchal female substance whose existence is elevated to the level of a pure object that is not supposed to be polluted or violated. According to Freud, the totem is identified with our social being or our present existence; how can we ‘be’ of something and ‘be’ beyond ourselves. In other words, totem not only constructs our being in the present but helps formulating our spiritual existence in future. However, an emotional ambivalence is resulted from its dialectic divergence between 'sacredness' and 'uncleanness'.  For example, female figure (mother), on one hand, is considered sacred but, on the other, is treated as a vulgar personality (whore). When woman stimulates man sexually, she, at the same time, possesses menstruation process that restricts such sexual temptation. Totem and taboo invoke and depend on the function of a certain societies' Law. In a primordial context, all the women in the clan are possessed by one father who drives away his sons as they grow up. The jealousy father is later encountered violently by his sons and they finally kill him and devour him (patriarchal horde). And by this act, they accomplish their identification with him. The totem meal, mankind's fist festival, would thus be the most primal commemoration of man's criminal deeds and this is the beginning of all social and moral organizations in human civilization (Freud 1985: 203-4). With the origin of moral restrictions, religion and law resulted from dead- father, Freud reveals that  it is the beginning of the complex constitutes of all neurosis. According to Andrew Roberts,
'The dead father became stronger than the living one had been - for events took the course we often see them follow in human affairs to this day. What had up to then been prevented by his actual existence was thenceforward prohibited by the sons themselves, in accordance with the psychological procedure so familiar to us in psychoanalysis under the name 'deferred obedience'. They revoked their deed by forbidding the killing of the totem, the substitute for their father; and they renounced its fruits by resigning their claim to the women who had now been set free'.

Out of this guilt, according to Roberts, man created two fundamental taboos; namely incest and patricide. ‘Freudian primordial parricide in which the sons, driven out in the cause of the sexual monopoly of the overbearing father, somehow come together and, in their combined strength, kill and eat him’ (Fitzpatrick 2001: 12). It is from this act Freud derives the origin of society and law. The violation of totem is a traumatic encounter and is a Real. The totemic construction of woman and the notion of pollution are primordial ideas and the criticisms against this act emerge from the country’s pre-modern origins. In the generalized perversion in postmodern Sri Lanka, such spectral violation of primordial law is experienced as ‘commanded’ by its enjoyment. The contradiction between ideological individualism (‘I do whatever I want since I have paid 30,000 rupees’) and market oriented standardized enjoyment (Tutt  2010: 3) in which the notion ‘this is how you should enjoy’ is injected (or commanded) to the subject. What is observable in this event is there is a provocative ‘elimination of paternal authority’ in our society (that is why this fan’s father’s position is questioned) and the President Maithripala Sirisena's immediate response to this event is also based on the 'threatened' legitimacy of the paternal figure who is supposed to preserve the essence of the nation. As expected, he clearly confirmed that his government does not allow anyone to destroy the spirituality of Sri Lankanness while also paradoxically representing the Liberal Capitalist structure that sustains obscene transgressions. Capitalism is only possible through such ‘radical’ violations (revolutions!).  

Those who staged this event by transgressing a fundamental taboo of the society, by the time this article is written, have publicly apologized for certain technical issues in the show but have not expressed anything with regard to this controversial scene. This whole show became a public concern not because of ticketing issues or artist's delay and the like. The organizers (a firm owned by Mahela and Sanga) who belong to a successful business category in Sri Lanka carefully avoids the politico-cultural controversy of the event (the postmodern de-politicization). The liquid global capital from which they immensely profit stands above national politico-cultural boarders. Such silence is understandable under the new pervert philosophy which seeks temporal and alternative heroes such as Enrique Iglesias who is sustained on our inability to reach jouissance. However, rather than holding one particular female responsible for historical patriarchal failure in politics, Sri Lankans should understand this event as a producer of truth that we desire to suppress. In the Zizek-Badiou debate, what Badiou claims is truth is a discourse that is resulted from an Event (Badiou 2006). According Badiou, 1917 Red Revolution or French Revolution or 9/11 are such events where truth is produced as post-evental phenomenon (2005). The contemporary discourse that identifies this particular female figure as a destroyer of our society (in this event) has largely forgotten  to take into account what the next step should be by doing so. Are we going to invite the primordial authoritarian master to come back, purify and save us from modern evils? Though this precise event is not universally collective political action, the outcome and the impact always exceeds the situation itself. It is true that she has broken a totemic rule in her own pervert manner but the violation of Truth-Event forces us for a new beginning. This new beginning should not be based on some nostalgic return to the past  whose fragile ideological framework is comfortably exploited by the totalitarian master.

Let's conclude this short essay by identifying the symptom that floats between the spaces of the benevolent master and totalitarianism (the one who promises to save us from modern evil). In a pervert global order where there are no true heroes but pre-Oedipal masters who demonically execute banal barbarity across globe, I will quote few lines from Enrique's song 'Hero',
  'I can be your hero, baby
   I can kiss away the pain
   I will stand by you forever
  You can take my breath away' (Enrique Iglesias).
You can hear the hysterical murmur demanding subjectivity to the command of the benevolent master who temporarily promises to take all your pain away and cure your historical wounds. Benevolent Master always promises a degree of surplus enjoyment and becomes a slave of the instrumental enjoyment of late-capitalism (Iglesias plays the role of the master and the slave at the same time). The surplus enjoyment of the whole Iglesias event is derived through 'something more than the musical experience' itself. More than the musical experience is publicly supplemented by this fetish sex symbols-objects such as female undergarments. This particular female fan merely became the object of this 'staged' Iglesias subjectivity of the unconditional command towards transgressive enjoyment that you cannot resist. But by rising above the traditional decent feminine role (let's say this event is organized behind-the-scene), she has staged a manipulated 'excessive outburst of passion' (Zizek 2011:114) which can be termed as an Event that epitomized the negativity with which Sri Lankans' politico-cultural harmony is maintained (Truth).  From the present indifferent hypocrisy towards our own political failure and crucifying a woman as a homage (Badiou terms this situation as 'subjectivity' in the following diagram) we must move towards a new being/appearance; a new form of politics that truly changes the present hysterical-pervert status quo.  In her own gross and enigmatic subjectivity at the threshold of the benevolent master, in a Zizekian sense, she has slapped her neighbor! (2011:119)  Isn't her intrusive gesture a wake up call for a new beginning? 

Further Readings:
1. Badiou, A. (2005). Being and Event. (trans. Oliver Feltham). London. Continuum.

2. Badiou, A. (2006). Truth Producer in Politics (Lecture delivered by Badiou). in

3. Fitzpatrick, P. (2001). Modernism and the Grounds of Law. UK. Cambridge University Press.

4. Freud, S. (1985). Totem and Taboo. in ‘The Origin of Religion’ (Vol. 13). London. Penguin.

5. MacCannell, D. (1975). The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class. USA. University of California Press.

6. Sathhanda Weekend Newspaper. (2015. 12. 27). Change the Channel if You Cannot Stand to See the Bra being Taken Off. in

7. Tutt, D. (2010). Oedipus and the Social Bond in Zizek and Badiou. (Vol.8-No.1). in International Journal of Zizek Studies.

8. Roberts, A. (2010). Totem and Taboo: Extracts from Sigmund Freud. (retrieved from 

9. Zizek. S. (2011). Living in the End Times. London and New York. Verso.

                                                                                                                                   Mahesh Hapugoda